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Question

Explain with two examples each of the following: coordination entity, ligand, coordination number, coordination polyhedron, homoleptic and heteroleptic


Solution

Coordination entity:
A central metal atom/ion bonded to fixed number of oppositely charged ions or neutral molecules. Examples include $$\displaystyle [Ni(CO)_4], \: [CoCl_3(NH_3)_3]$$.

Ligand:
An atom or molecule or ion capable of donating a pair of electrons to the central metal or ion and forms a coordinate bond with it. Examples include chloride ions, water and ammonia.

Coordination number:
The total number of ligands in a coordination compound attached to the central metal atom or ion. For example, in $$\displaystyle [Ni(CO)_4]$$, the coordination number of Ni is 4. In $$\displaystyle CoCl_3(NH_3)_3$$, the coordination number of $$\displaystyle Co^{3+}$$ is 6.

Coordination polyhedron:
The spatial arrangement of ligand atoms which are directly attached to the central atom. For example, $$\displaystyle [Co(NH_3)_6]^{3+}$$ has octahedral geometry and $$\displaystyle Ni(CO)_4$$ has tetrahedral geometry.

homoleptic :
Metal is bound to only one kind of donor groups. For example $$\displaystyle [Ni(NH_3)_6]^{2+} ,  [Co(NH_3)_6]^{3+}$$.

heteroleptic :
Metal is bound to more than one kind of donor groups. For example $$\displaystyle [CoCl_3(NH_3)_3],  [NiCl_2(H_2O)_4]$$.

Chemistry
NCERT
Standard XII

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