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Question

Give a brief account on mechanism of vision.


Solution

The retina is the innermost layer of the eye. It helps in the sensation of vision. It is a three-layered membrane which consists of inner ganglion cells, middle bipolar cells, and outermost photoreceptor cells. A photoreceptor cell is composed of a protein called as opsin and an aldehyde of vitamin A called as retinal. When light rays are focused on the retina through the cornea, it leads to the dissociation of retinal from opsin protein. This changes the structure of opsin. As the structure of opsin changes, the permeability of membrane changes, generating a potential difference in the cells. This generates an action potential in the ganglionic cells and is transmitted to the visual cortex of the brain via optic nerves. In the cortex region of the brain, the impulses are analysed and the image is formed on the retina.

Biology
NCERT
Standard XI

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