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Question

How are the following compounds obtained from benzoic acid?
a) Ethyl benzoate
b) Benzyl alcohol
c) Benzene.


Solution

a) Ethyl benzoate:
Benzoic acid is esterified with ethanol in presence of acid catalyst to form ethyl benzoate.
$$C_6H_5COOH + C_2H_5OH \xrightarrow{H^+} C_6H_5COOC_2H_5 + H_2O$$
b) Benzyl alcohol:
Benzoic acid is reduced with lithium aluminium hydride to form benzyl alcohol.
$$C_6H_5COOH \xrightarrow{LiAlH_4} C_6H_5CHO \xrightarrow{LiAlH_4}C_6H_5CH_2OH$$
c) Benzene: 
Benzoic acid is heated with sodalime. It undergoes decarboxylation to give benzene.
$$C_6H_5COOH \xrightarrow[NaOH]{CaO/ \Delta} C_6H_6 + CO_2$$

Chemistry

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