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Question

(i) What is a lone pair of electrons?
(ii) Draw an electron dot diagram of a hydronium ion and label the lone pair of electrons.
(iii) Name a neutral covalent molecule which contains one lone pair of electrons.

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Solution

(i) The pair of valence electrons on an atom in a molecule that does not participate in covalent bonding with another atom is known as the lone pair of electrons.

(ii) Electron dot structure of hydronium ion:
H:O..H..:H+ Lone pair

(iii) Ammonia (NH3) is a neutral covalent molecule that contains one lone pair of electrons on a nitrogen atom.


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