Question

# (i) What is a lone pair of electrons? (ii) Draw an electron dot diagram of a hydronium ion and label the lone pair of electrons. (iii) Name a neutral covalent molecule which contains one lone pair of electrons.

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Solution

## (i) The pair of valence electrons on an atom in a molecule that does not participate in covalent bonding with another atom is known as the lone pair of electrons. (ii) Electron dot structure of hydronium ion: ${\left[H:\underset{\mathbf{.}\mathbf{.}}{\overset{\underset{..}{H}}{O}}:H\right]}^{+}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}↓\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}Lonepair$ (iii) Ammonia (NH3) is a neutral covalent molecule that contains one lone pair of electrons on a nitrogen atom.

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