National parks are government maintained areas, which are reserved for the betterment of wildlife, and activities such as cultivation, grazing, forestry, and habitat manipulation are not allowed. At present, there are 90 National parks in India occupying 1.1 percent if the geographical area. For example Yellow Stone Park in the USA, Royal Park near Sydney, Australia. The Jim Corbett National Park near Nainital was the first National Park established in India in 1936. Some important national parks of India and important animals found are as follows:
i. In Kaziranga National Park- Rhinoceros, wild buffalo, tiger, leopard, swamp deer, barking deer, python and birds like pelican, stork and ring-tailed fishing eagles. This is a famous national park for one-horned rhinoceros of India.
ii. Sundarban (Tiger reserve)- Tiger, wild boar, deer, dolphin, estuarine crocodile.
iii. Corbett National Park (Uttranchal)- Tiger, Elephant, Panther, wild boar, python, crocodile, chital, king cobra, sambhar. This is the first national park in India which is famous for tigers.
iv. Gir National Park ( Gujarat) - Asiatic lion, panther, striped hyena, sambhar, wild boar, python. langur, partridge. This National Park is famous for the Asiatic lions.
Sanctuaries are the areas reserved for the conservation of animals only. Operations such as harvesting of timber, the collection of minor forest products and private ownership rights are allowed provided they do not affect the animals adversely. At present, there are 448 wildlife sanctuaries in our country occupying over 3.6 percent of the geographical area. Some important sanctuaries of India and important animals found are as follows:
i. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (Assam)- Tiger, Panther, Rhino, gaur, wild buffalo, sambhar, golden langur, swamp deer, wild boar.
ii. Annamalai Sanctuary(Tamil Nadu)- Elephant, tiger, panther, sambhar, wild dog, spotted deer.
iii. Jaldapara Sanctuary (West Bengal)- Rhino, elephant, tiger, leopard, gaur, deer.