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Question

Match the following in column I with column II and choose the correct combination.


Solution

DNA replication is the synthesis of DNA strands using parental DNA as the template by enzyme DNA polymerase. Lagging DNA strand is synthesized in the 5'-->3' direction by adding a new primer every few hundred bases on the second parental strand. Each of these primers is elongated in the 5'-->3' direction and form discontinuous segments called as Okazaki fragments. 

Transcription is the process of RNA synthesis using DNA template strand. RNA polymerase adds ribonucleotides to 3’ end of primer and chain grows in 5’ to 3’ direction. 

The first stage of translation takes place in the cytosol where aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases esterify the 20 amino acids to their corresponding tRNAs. 

The carboxyl group of the amino acid reacts with the $$\alpha$$-phosphoryl group of ATP to form an enzyme-bound intermediate, aminoacyl adenylate, followed by transfer of aminoacyl group from enzyme-bound aminoacyl-AMP to its corresponding specific tRNA. 

Three GTP-dependent termination factors, or release factors namely RF-1, RF-2, and RF-3 terminate the translation by hydrolysis of the terminal peptidyl-tRNA bond to release free polypeptide and last tRNA from the P site followed by dissociation of the 70S ribosome into its 30S and 50S subunits.


Biology

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