There are 14 essential plant nutrients which are as follows:
N,P, K, Ca, S, Mg, B, Cl, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, Ni.
Macronutrients: They are the nutrients which are needed and consumed in large amounts such as Ca, Mg, S.
Micronutrients: They are the nutrients needed in very small amount such as B, Cl, Zn etc.
Carbon and oxygen are absorbed from the air, Hydrogen from water and other above mentioned nutrients are absorbed from soil.