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Question

Pls provide me with the various equations of molality,normality,molarity,formality and it's application with definition


Solution

1: Molality
a) is defined as the “total moles of a solute contained in a kilogram of a solvent.” The term needs to calculate the mass of the solvent and moles of solute
b)Molality, m=
                   ( moles of solute/Kg of solvent)
c)aplications
    *as a measure of concentration is that           molality only depends on the masses of solute and solvent
     *solutions prepared volumetrically
2:Molarity(M)
a)  is the concentration of a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
b)equation is 
    (moles of solution/liters of solution)
c) aplications
*Molarity can be used to calculate the volume of solvent or the amount of solute.
*The relationship between two solutions with the same amount of moles of solute can be represented by the formula c1V1 = c2V2, where c is concentration and V is volume
3:Normality(N)
a)   Normality is a rarely used expression which indicates the concentration of a solution. It is defined as the gram equivalent weight per liter of solution.
b)equation
(gram equalent weight/liter of solution)
c)aplication
  *Normality is used to express hydroxide ion’s or hydronium ion’s  concentration of solution in acid-base chemistry.
*Used in precipitation reactions to measure the number of ions.
*In redox reaction, it describes the number of electrons that an reducing agent or oxidizing agent can donate or accept
4:Formality(F)
  a) is the number of gram formula masses of the ionic solute dissolved per litre of the solution.
b)equation
   (no of gram formula mass/volume of solution in liter)
c)
   * used in calculations related to ionic compounds
  

 

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