Q21. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment describes the following major categories of ecosystem services—provisioning, supporting, regulating, and cultural.
Consider the following statements in this regards.
Genetic resources, water and minerals are part of supporting ecosystem services.
2. Nutrient recycling, primary production and soil health are part of regulating ecosystem services.
3. Raw materials and Energy are part of provisioning ecosystem services.
Which of the above statements(s) is/are correct?

  1. (d) None of the above
  2. (a) Only 1 and 2           
  3. (c) All of the above
  4. (b) Only 3


The correct option is D (b) Only 3

Supporting services
Ecosystem services "that is necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services". These include services such as nutrient recycling, primary production and soil formation. These services make it possible for the ecosystems to provide services such as food supply, flood regulation and water purification.
Provisioning services
"Products obtained from ecosystems"
1) Food (including seafood and game), crops, wild foods, and spices
2)  Raw materials (including lumber, skins, fuel wood, organic matter, fodder, and fertilizer)
3)  Genetic resources (including crop improvement genes, and health care)
4) Water
5) Minerals (including diatomite)
6) Medicinal resources (including pharmaceuticals, chemical models, and test and assay organisms)
7) Energy (hydropower, biomass fuels)
8) Ornamental resources (including fashion, handicraft, jewelry, pets, worship, decoration and souvenirs like furs, feathers, ivory, orchids, butterflies, aquarium fish, shells,
Regulating services
"Benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes"
1)  Carbon sequestration and climate regulation
2)  Waste decomposition and detoxification
3) Purification of water and air
4) Pest and disease control
Cultural services
"Nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation, and aesthetic experiences"
1)  Cultural (including use of nature as motif in books, film, painting, folklore, national symbols, architect, advertising, etc.)
2)  Spiritual and historical (including use of nature for religious or heritage value or natural).
3)  Recreational experiences (including ecotourism, outdoor sports, and recreation).
4)  Science and education (including use of natural systems for school excursions, and scientific discovery)

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