Draw the structure of a neuron and explain its function.
Functions of a neuron :
Neurons are specialized cells of the nervous system that transmit signals throughout the body. They have long extensions that extend out from the cell body called dendrites and axons. Dendrites are extensions of the cell body (soma) of a neuron that receive signals and conduct them towards the cell body. The cell body extends into axon which is covered by a myelin sheath. The myelin sheath acts as an insulator which prevents short-circuiting in the neurons. This way an impulse is maintained within a single neuron and doesn’t go haywire. There are small gaps in the myelin sheath known as Nodes of Ranvier. An impulse jumps from node to node on its way of propagation towards the axon terminals. At the terminals, depending on the makeup of the neuron, the impulse is transmitted to the dendrites of the next neuron via a junction known as the synapse, in a chemical or electrical manner.