The correct option is D Both A and R are false
The gradual and fairly predictable change in the species composition of a given area is called ecological succession. Ecological succession are of two different types- primary and secondary succession. Primary succession occurs in essentially lifeless areas in which the soil is incapable of sustaining life as a result of such factors as lava flows, newly formed sand dunes, or rocks left from a retreating glacier. Secondary succession begins in areas where natural biotic communities have been destroyed such as in abandoned farm lands, burned or cut forests, lands that have been flooded. Succession takes place, both in bare areas and on previously inhabited disturbed or damaged habitat, and is known as primary and secondary succession respectively.