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Question

Rutherford's alpha particle scattering experiment established that:

A
Positive charge is not evenly distributed throughout an atom
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B
Electrons are negatively charged
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C
Electrons are positively charged
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D
Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons
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Solution

The correct option is A Positive charge is not evenly distributed throughout an atom
Rutherford bombarded a thin sheet of gold with alpha particles in an evacuated chamber. He made the following observations:

Most of the alpha particles passed straight through the foil without any deflection from the path.
A small fraction of them was deflected from their original path by small angles, only a few particles bounced back.

From these observations, he arrived at the following conclusions:
Positive charge is present at the centre of an atom in a very small space.
Most of the space in an atom is empty.
Entire mass of an atom is concentrated at the centre. Hence, he proved that the positive charge is not distributed in an even manner inside the atom.

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