The diagram given below represents an experimental set-up to demonstrate a certain process. Study the same and answer the questions that follow:

(a) Name the process:

(b) Define the above-named process.

(c) What would you deserve in the experimental set-up after an hour or so?

(d) What control experiment can be set up for comparison?

(e) Keeping in mind the root-hair, cell and its surroundings, name the parts that correspond to

(1) concentrated sugar solution (2) parchment paper and (3) water in the beaker.

(f) Name any other substance that can be used instead of parchment paper in the above experiment.

(g) Mention two advantages of this process to the plants.


(a) Osmosis

(b) Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane from a more dilute solution (with a lower solute concentration) to a less dilute solution (with a higher solute concentration).

(c) After an hour or so, the level of sugar solution in the thistle funnel will rise and the level of water in the beaker will drop slightly.

(d) For the control experiment, the beaker will contain the water. At the same time, instead of the sugar solution; the thistle funnel with the cellophane paper tied on its mouth and inverted in the beaker will also contain water.

(1) concentrated sugar solution – Cell sap (of higher concentration than that of the surrounding water) within the root hair.

(2) parchment paper – cell membrane of root hair.

(3) water in the beaker – water in the soil.

(f) cellophane paper, egg membrane, animal bladder

(g)(i) The roots of plants absorb water and minerals from the surrounding soil due to osmosis.

(ii) Osmosis allows plants to absorb water from the soil which helps plants to keep cells alive in roots, stems and leaves.

(iii) Osmosis is also important in the opening and closing of stomata which is an important feature of the processes like transpiration and photosynthesis. 

Concise Biology
Standard X

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