Question

# The following summaries describe recently published research results.Research $$1.$$ Wu and Li $$(1985)$$: The comparative analysis of homologous genes between human and mouse genomes suggests that the evolutionary rate of homologous genes was higher in the mouse lineage than in the human lineage.Research $$2.$$ Smith and Donohe $$(2008)$$: The plant families Caprifoliaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Lamiaceae are composed of both herbaceous and arborescent species. The comparative analysis of homologous genes between the herbaceous and arborescent species within a single plant family suggests that the evoluationary rate of homologous genes in herbaceous lineages were faster than that of arborescent lineages in all three plant families.Research $$3.$$ Gilman et al. $$(2009)$$: The comparative analysis of $$130$$ homologous mitochondrial genes between a sister species pair of vertebrates from the temperate region and from the tropical region indicate that the base substitution rates of homologous genes from the tropical region are $$1.7$$ times faster than that of the temperate region.Based on these studies, which of the following statements best describes the common evolutionary processes in plant and animal genes?

A
The evolutionary rates of genes are accelerated in short-lived animals and plants
B
The evolutionary rates of genes are accelerated in higher animals and plants
C
The evolutionary rates of genes are accelerated in higher animals and plants which lived in higher temperature regions
D
Direct comparisons of homologous genes between animals and plants show that the plants evolve faster than animals

Solution

## The correct option is A The evolutionary rates of genes are accelerated in short-lived animals and plantsShort-lived species with quick generation replacement usually evolve at a faster rate than do large, long-lived species. This is because new genetic variations normally appear in each generation as a consequence of mutations in sex cells. Those variations may be selected for or against depending on the environment at the time. As a consequence, quicker reproductive cycles generally result in speeded up species divergence. Speciation is generally a function of time, unlike temperature regions which were subjected to frequent glaciations in the past, tropical latitudes have remained relatively undisturbed for millions of years and thus, have a long evolutionary time for species diversification.So, the correct answer is 'The evolutionary rates of genes are accelerated in short-lived animals and plants'.Biology

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