Carbohydrates are optically active polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones or the compounds that can be hydrolysed to polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones.
Carbohydrates are classified into simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates.
Simple carbohydrates are also known as monosaccharides and include aldoses and ketoses.
Complex carbohydrates include oligosaccharides (disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides etc.) and polysaccharides.
Characteristics of carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are simple sugar molecules composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The ratio of C,HandOisusually1:2:1$. A carbohydrate contains a chain of sugar molecules called monosaccharides.