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Question

What do you mean by electromagnetic induction? State Faraday’s law of induction.


Solution

Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, also known as Faraday's law is the basic law of electromagnetism which helps us predict how a magnetic field would interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF). This phenomenon is known as electromagnetic induction.
Faraday's laws of Electromagnetic Induction:
Faraday's laws of Electromagnetic Induction consists of two laws. The first law describes the induction of emf in a conductor and the second law quantifies the emf produced in the conductor.
Faraday's First law of Electromagnetic Induction:
The discovery and understanding of electromagnetic induction are based on a long series of experiments carried out by Faraday and Henry. From the experimental observations, Faraday arrived at the conclusion that an emf is induced in the coil when the magnetic flux across the coil changes with time. With this in mind, Faraday formulated his first law of electromagnetic induction as, whenever a conductor is placed in varying magnetic field, an electromotive force is induced. If the conductor circuit is closed, a current is induced which is called induced current.
Changing the magnetic field intensity in a closed loop. Shown in below figure.
Faraday's second law of Electromagnetic Induction:
Faraday's second law of electromagnetic induction states that, The induced emf in a coil is equal to the rate of change of flux linkage.
The flux is the product of the number of turns in the coil and the flux associated with the coil. The formula of Faraday's law is given below:
$$\varepsilon =-N\frac{\Delta \phi}{\Delta t}$$
Where,
$$\varepsilon$$ is the electromotive force.
$$\phi$$ is the magnetic flux.
$$N$$ is the number of turns.
The negative sign indicates that the direction of the induced emf and change in direction of magnetic fields have opposite signs.
Additionally, there is another key law known as Lenz's law that describes electromagnetic induction as well. 

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Physics
NCERT
Standard XII

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