What is Green Revolution? Why was it implemented and how did it benefit the farmers? Explain in brief. 


Green Revolution refers to the substantial increase in production of foodgrains resulting from the use of High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of seeds and the increased use of fertilisers, pesticides and irrigation facilities. It resulted in the increase in crop yield which was required to make India self-sufficient in foodgrains.

Green Revolution was implemented because of the following reasons:

(i) Food Security: The colonial rule had caused Indian agriculture to suffer from a low level of productivity, especially in foodgrains, as more emphasis during colonial rule had been on cash crops which served as raw material to British industries. This resulted in a shortage of foodgrains in India and made Green Revolution necessary to ensure food security for the population.

(ii) Low Irrigation Facility: The land area under irrigation cover was only 17% in 1951. The major part of agriculture was dependent on rainfall from monsoon and in case of scanty rainfall or delayed monsoon, crops were destroyed. This caused a low level of agricultural production and a solution was needed to overcome it.

(iii) Conventional Methods: The use of conventional inputs and the absence of modern techniques led to low level of agricultural productivity.

Green Revolution benefitted the farmers in the following ways:

(i) Increase in Income: Green Revolution helped the farmers to increase the productivity of their landholdings. Increased productivity led to an increase in their incomes.

(ii) Reduced Dependency on Natural Forces: Before the advent of Green Revolution, farmers were very much affected by the fluctuations of the climate. The various techniques of Green Revolution reduced their vulnerability to natural forces and helped them to harvest a good crop even in adverse conditions.

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