What is immunisation? How do vaccination help in preventing diseases?
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Immunisation is a process of getting immunized against a particular disease, through vaccines made up by using a weak and attenuated form of an immunogen to get protection against a disease, most cost-effective and preventive tool for controlling infectious diseases.
When B lymphocytes detect the heat killed or an antigen present in the vaccine, two types of cells will form against the antigen :
-Plasma B cells
-Memory B cells
Plasma B cells produce antibodies which elicit a response against a specific antigen known as the primary response. It takes several days to build the maximum number of antibody in blood around 14 days.
Memory B cells will form after a couple of weeks which provide a long-term protection to the body.
Heat-killed antigens in the vaccine are not that much strong to cause disease but strong enough for the immune system to produce antibodies against it and formed memory B cells to develop immunity against future infections.