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Question

What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905?


Solution

The Social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905 was backward:

Social Conditions: 85% of Russia's population was agriculturist. The industries were there, but rarely they were privately owned. Workers were divided on the basis of their occupation. They mainly migrated to cities for employment in factories. The peasant community was deeply religious but did not care much about the nobility. They believed that land must be divided amongst themselves.

Economic Condition: Russia was going through a bad period economically. Prices of essential good rise while real wages decreased by 20% leading to the famous St. Petersburg strike. This strike started a series of events that are together known as the 1905 Revolution. During this revolution, there were strikes all over the country, universities closed down, and various professionals and workers established the Union of Unions, demanding the establishment of a constituent assembly.

Political Condition: Political parties were illegal before 1914. The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded in 1898 by socialists who respected Marx’s ideas. In 1903, this party was divided into two groups - Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks, who were in majority, were led by Lenin who is regarded as the greatest thinker on socialism after Marx.


Social Science
NCERT
Standard IX

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