The correct option is A The bacteria found in the human alimentary canal can become antibiotic resistant
The plants generated from cells which have been genetically modified, by introducing a foreign DNA, are termed as genetically modified or transgenic plants.
Biofortification is the process of breeding nutrient rich crops with higher levels of vitamins, minerals, proteins, etc. It is a better way of delivering nutrients to young and developing children through staple food items. Hence option c is an advantage of biofortified crops.
Genes added or modified in the GM crops have no effect on humans and animals but can be acquired by micro organisms. The bacteria present in the human alimentary canal can take up antibiotic resistance genes that are present in the GM food and can become resistant to antibiotics. Hence option a is correct.
Genetically modified crops like golden rice is rich in β-carotene (provitamin A - precursor to the synthesis vitamin A). The elevated levels of β - carotene give it the characteristic golden colour.
β - carotene in the food is further converted into vitamin A within the body, upon consumption. Deficiency of vitamin A causes night blindness (inability to see in dim light). Thus, golden rice may help in solving the problems related to night blindness in developing countries.
Biofortification of staple food crops (rice, wheat) has emerged as a very potent solution to tackle the nutrient deficiency problems in the people belonging to developing countries. A large section of the population in these countries cannot afford variety of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish, and other food products to meet their essential nutritional requirements. Thus biofortification of common food items such as rice, wheat, maize helps the poor people to obtain nutritional food at low cost. Hence option d is an advantage of biofortified crops.
Biofortification focuses on improving the nutrient profile of the food crop while it is growing and maturing, instead of adding nutrients manually to the food during the processing time. Biofortified crops contains more nutrients compared to the traditional crops. Hence statement b is incorrect.