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Question

Which of the following is false about knowledge, as evident from the author's views in the passage?


  1. None of the above.

  2. Every case of knowledge is a case of true belief but not vice versa

  3. 'Inductive' methods of inference are probabilistic in their conclusions, lacking self-evidence.

  4. Evidence is the component, which along with truth and belief, in most of the cases, gives rise to knowledge completely.


Solution

The correct option is D

Evidence is the component, which along with truth and belief, in most of the cases, gives rise to knowledge completely.


Let us look at the lines in the passage:
"every case of knowledge is a case of true belief, but not vice versa”.
Option (a) is true. So it can't be correct.
Let us have a look at these lines from the last paragraph:
"In the fourth place, the methods of inference that may be called in a broad sense "inductive” have never been satisfactorily formulated; when formulated, even if completely true, they only give probability to their conclusions. Moreover, in any possibly accurate form, they lack self-evidence,”
Option (c) is true. So it can't be the answer.
Let us look at these lines from the third paragraph:
"What character in addition to truth must a belief have in order to count as knowledge? The plain man would say there must be sound evidence to support the belief. As a matter of common sense this is right in most of the cases in which doubt arises in practice, but if intended as a complete account of the matter, it is very inadequate.”
The author's view is that evidence in addition to truth and belief does not give rise to knowledge completely.
So option (b) Is false. The correct answer is option (b).

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