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Question

Which of the following is ortho/para directing and deactivating group? 


A
F
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B
Cl
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C
Br
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D
All of the above
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Solution

The correct option is D All of the above
Halogen group (-X) has two effects
(i) Negative inductive effect (-I)
(ii) Positive resonance effect (+R)

Due to -I effect, it attract the electron toward itself and reduce the electron density on benzene so it deactivates the ring and the substitution takes place at meta position. 

Due to +R effect, it increase the electron density at ortho and para position by delocalisation of electrons. Resonance effect dominates over inductive effect.

Hence, in halobenzene substitution takes place at ortho and para position.
 

Chemistry

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