Why do we say that commercial banks create money while we also say that the central bank has the sole right to issue currency ? Explain. What is the likely impact of money creation by the commercial banks on national income ?
We know that RBI prints new money, while on the other hand, commercial bank multiplies money supplied by the RBI through the process of credit creation. People deposit money in their respective bank accounts. As per the central bank guidelines, the commercial banks are required to maintain a portion of total deposits in form of cash reserves.
With the help of the past experiences, the commercial banks know that not all the depositor will turn-up for withdrawal at the same day. Consequently, the commercial banks lends the remaining portion (left after maintaining cash reserves) of the total deposits to the general public in form of credit, loans and advances. It is the second portion of the total deposits that is responsible for the credit creation (credit money).
The process of creation of credit money begins as soon as the commercial banks start the lending process. The amount of the credit money increases as the banks lend loans to more and more number of people in the economy. The deposit of money by the people in the banks and the subsequent lending of loans by the commercial banks is a never-ending process.This lending process of the commercial banks increases the rate of investment and production in the economy, which in turn helps in improving the national income in the economy.