Write short notes on the following:
(a) tissue culture
(c) the advantages of vegetative reproduction
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(a) Tissue culture:
Tissue culture is a process of developing a complete plant from a part of a plant. It is based on the tissue and cell culture technique. Here, a part of a tissue taken from the growing tip of a stem is transferred to a flask, which has a suitable nutrient medium and hormones under aseptic conditions. The tissue develops into a mass of fast-growing undifferentiated cells. The tissue is then transferred to another medium where cell gets differentiated into plantlets. The plantlets are then transplanted in pots or soil and raised to maturity. The technique is commercially used for the production of orchids, chrysanthemum, dahlia and other ornamental plants.
Grafting is a method where the stem of a desired plant is cut and inserted in the root system of another plant. The portion of the stem that is grafted on is called scion, while the plant onto which grafting is done is called stock. Examples include a rose plant with a well-developed root system but poorly formed flowers and a rose plant with beautiful flowers but a poor root system. Plant growers can graft these parts of plants and obtain a plant with a well-developed root system and beautiful flowers.
(c) Advantages of vegetative propagation:
It is a method of propagation for seedless plants such as sugarcane, potato and rose.
The plants produced are similar to the parent plant. They are exact copies of the parent plant and each other.
A large number of offspring can be produced.
New plant varieties can be produced through grafting.
Disease-free plants can be propagated by this method.