Alkyl halides are immiscible in water though they are polar because?

The carbon-halogen linkages in alkyl halides are polar. The electronegativity of carbon and halogen differs significantly. Water is a polar solvent. It is capable of dissolving polar solutes. This is based on the like-dissolves-like concept. Solvents that aren’t polar dissolve nonpolar solutes. Alkyl halides should be miscible with water based on this principle. Alkyl halides, on the other hand, are immiscible in water. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds develop in water, which are strong interactions.

  • The strength of the contact between an alkyl halide molecule and a water molecule is weaker than the strength of a hydrogen bond between two water molecules when alkyl halides are introduced to water.
  • As a result, alkyl halides are incapable of forming or breaking hydrogen bonds with water.
  • Thus, alkyl halides are immiscible in water though they are polar because they cannot form hydrogen bonds with water.

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