Among the given ranges, option (c) Satpura and Vindhya ranges come under Black mountains.
These two ranges lie in the central-western part of India. Black mountains, also called fault black mountains are the mountains formed from the cracks/faults evolved from the earth’s crust. These faults or cracks cause one section or part of the earth to rise and others to be depressed, forming block mountains.
- The Vindhyan Range lies more or less parallel to the Narmada Valley.
- It is in the east-west direction from Jobat in Gujarat to Sasaram in the state of Bihar over a distance of 1,200 km.
- The approximate elevation of the Vindhyan Range is around 300 to 650 m.
- Vindhya Range comprises horizontally bedded sedimentary rocks of ancient age.
- Bharner and Kaimur hills are the continuations of Vindhya ranges in the eastward direction.
- The Narmada valley consists of rivers Chambal, Betwa and Ken that rise within 30 km of the valley.
- Satpura range comprises a series of seven mountains. The word Sat means seven, and Pura means mountains.
- It moves along in an east-west direction south of the Vindhyas and between the Narmada and the Tapi, almost parallel to these rivers.
- The stretch of the range is about a distance of 900 km.
- Some parts of the Satpuras have been folded and upheaved. These parts are regarded as structural uplift or ‘horst’.
- The Dhupgarh mountain is around 1,350 m near Pachmarhi on Mahadev Hills is the highest peak.
- The Amarkantak mountain, which is around 1,127 m, is another important peak.