(a) Carbonate ore: It produces CO2 with brisk effervescence.

(i) Calcination: Carbonate ore is heated in limited supply of air and oxide is obtained. It releases carbon dioxide as a colourless and odourless gas with brisk effervescence. Hence, by the calcination process the metal carbonate ore are converted to their metal oxides.

e.g. ZnCO3 → ZnO + CO2

(ii) Reduction with carbon: Oxide ore is heated with carbon ZnO (s) + C (s) → Zn (s) + CO (g)

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