Bases can be defined as substances that produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water (OH–).
Acids and bases
- An Arrhenius acid is any substance that ionizes when it dissolves in water to give the H+ or hydrogen.
- An Arrhenius base is any substance that gives the OH–, or hydroxide, an ion when it dissolves in water.
- Arrhenius’s acids include HCl, HCN, and H2SO4 that ionize in water to give the H+ ion. Arrhenius bases include ionic compounds that contain the OH– ion, such as NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2.
- When acids are dissolved in water, an excess of hydronium is created. When bases are dissolved in water, an excess of hydroxyls is created.