Black soil is also known as regular soil. The soil comprises various amounts of vital nutrients necessary for cultivation. The soil is the top part of the earth’s surface, including disintegrated rock, humus, inorganic, and organic materials. Soil is classified based on size, colour and texture. Black soil is a type of soil that comes under the category of soil classification based on colour.
Black soil is also referred to as regular soil or cotton soil in India. As per international standards, it is known as ‘Tropical Chernozems’. Black soil is the third major group of soil found in India. As the name suggests, the soil appears black, and hence it has gained its name as black soil.
Formation of Black Soil
Black soil is formed by the weathering or breaking process of igneous rocks. Then by cooling or solidification of lava originated from the volcano eruption. Hence, it is also called lava soil.
Places where black soil is found
The black soil is majorly found in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Western parts of Madhya Pradesh, North- Western Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand up to Raj Mahal hills. The two popular plateaus that are the Deccan plateau and the Malwa plateau, also lie in black soil stretch.
Properties of black soil
Listed below are the properties of black soil:
- The soil is rich in minerals like iron, lime, calcium, potash, magnesium and aluminium.
- The soil has a high water-retaining capacity.
- The soil has a fine texture and clayey nature.
- The soil is more fertile as compared to any other group of soil.
- Crops that can be grown on black soil
- Crops like cotton, tobacco, chilly, oilseeds, jowar, Craig, sugarcane, and maize grow well.