Define Anti Markovnikov Rule And Markovnikov With Example

Markovnikov Rule

Markovnikov rule describes that in addition to reactions of alkenes or alkynes, the proton is added to the carbon atom that has the highest number of hydrogen atoms attached to it.

CH3 – CH = CH2 + H – Br → CH3 – CH – CH3

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Br

In the above-given example, Bromide (Br) ion is added to the middle carbon atom with less number of H atoms and the proton is attached to the terminal carbon (C) atom.

Anti Markovnikov Rule

Anti Markovnikov rule describes that in addition to reactions of alkenes or alkynes,

the proton is added to the carbon atom that has the least number of hydrogen atoms attached to it.

The Anti Markovnikov rule works against the Markovnikov rule and is called as peroxide effect or Kharasch effect.

CH3 – CH = CH2 + HBr \( overset{C_{6}H_{5}O_{2}}{rightarrow} \) CH3 – CH2 – CH2 + CH2Br

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