Define mono-valent, divalent and trivalent elements with example

The combining capacity of an atom is known as its valency. The number of bonds that an atom can form as part of a compound is expressed by the valency of the element.

Monovalent

An atom, ion, or chemical group with a valence of one, which thus can form one covalent bond is called monovalent.

Examples

Atoms that are monovalent are

  • Hydrogen
  • Lithium
  • Sodium
  • Chlorine

Divalent

An atom, ion, or chemical group with a valence of two, is called divalent.

Examples

Atoms that are divalent are

  • Beryllium
  • Oxygen
  • Magnesium
  • Sulphur

Trivalent

An atom, ion, or chemical group with a valence of three, is called trivalent.

Examples

Atoms that are trivalent are

  • Boron
  • Nitrogen
  • Aluminium
  • Phosphorous

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