Define the following: a)Permutit process b)Calgon�s process. c)Ion exchange process.

a) The process in which hard water containing Ca2+ is filtered through sand named zeolite is called Permutit process. b) Calgon ionizes to give complex anion. This helps in removal of calcium and magnesium ions from hard water in the form of a complex Calogen. c) The exchange of ions between two electrolytes or an electrolytic solution and a complex is known as ion exchange.

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