Define the following terms. (i) Mineral (ii) Ore (iii) Gangue



Mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and a crystalline structure. Mineral elements made up the earth, either alone or in a variety of combinations known as compounds. A single element or compound makes up a mineral. A mineral is an inorganic element that occurs naturally and has a definite chemical composition and ordered atomic structure.

Examples – Alums, K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O, etc.


Ores are a mixture of minerals: processed to produce an industrial mineral or chemically treated to produce one or more metals. The steel, aluminum, chromium, zinc, mercury, manganese, tungsten, and some copper ores are typically processed for just one element. All minerals are not considered as ores, but all ores are also minerals.

Examples – Bauxite Al2O3.2H2O is the ore of Al, copper pyrite CuFeS2.


In chemistry, a gangue is an unwanted substance or impurity that surrounds the mineral in an ore deposit, such as sand, rock, or some other material. When it comes to mining, this material is very popular. Mineral dressing, mineral processing, or ore dressing are terms used to describe the method of separating gangue from mineral.

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