Heart is the vital organ of the human body. Heart plays a major role in our body. The heart is responsible for major functions and transportation in our body.
The heart is an organ that pumps blood throughout the body. Human circulatory system is responsible for the transport of materials inside the human body. The organs of the circulatory system are heart, arteries, veins and capillaries. It comprises four chambers:
- Atria (upper chambers)
- Ventricles (lower chambers)
Layers of heart
The wall of the heart is made up of three layers:
- Epicardium- This is a protective layer made of connective tissues.
- Myocardium- This layer forms the heart muscles.
- Endocardium- This is the innermost layer and protects the valves and the heart.
A muscular wall known as the septum separates the two sides of the heart. The heart is encased in the pericardium that protects the heart and fastens it inside the chest. The outer and inner layers of the pericardium are filled with pericardial fluid that lubricates the heart during the contractions of the lungs and the diaphragm.
Function of Heart
The heart performs the following important functions:
- The primary function of the heart is to pump blood throughout the body.
- It supplies oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removes carbon dioxide and wastes from the blood.
- It also helps to maintain adequate blood pressure throughout the body.
The heart functions in the following ways:
- The arteries receive oxygenated blood from the heart and supply it throughout the body. Whereas, the veins carry the deoxygenated blood from all the body parts to the heart for oxygenation.
- The right atrium receives blood from the veins and pumps it to the right ventricle.
- The right ventricle pumps the blood received from the right atrium to the lungs.
- The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the left ventricle.
- The left ventricle pumps the oxygenated blood throughout the body.
Improper functioning of the heart results in heart diseases such as angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrest, etc.
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