The Funaria capsule is the terminal part of the sporophyte, which is developed at the seta’s apical region and the calyptra covers the capsule. The three main regions of the Funaria capsule are:
Apophasis– It is the basal part of the capsule, which is sterile and comprises a thin-walled epidermis. There are stomata in this region. The central region of Apophasis contains the chlorenchyma cells, which can perform photosynthesis.
Theca–This is the spore-bearing region present between the two layers- apophasis and operculum.
The spongy parenchyma cells present within the theca comprises the chlorophyll that can perform photosynthesis. This region also includes a single layer epidermis with stomata, the different layers of cells in the hypodermis, trabecular cells, spores sacs and the columella, the central region with parenchyma cells that help in the transport of water and nutrients.
Operculum–This is the upper dome-shaped region of the capsule, which comprises more layers of cells. The presence of a rim separates the cells of the operculum and theca. The outer region is called the epidermis. The operculum also consists of teeth made up of the cuticle and arranged in a ring in the region near the diaphragm.
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