- Italy’s unification process was the work of Giuseppe Garibaldi, Count Cavour, and Victory Emmanuel II, the 3 primary leaders.
- Italy was divided into 7 states in which only the Sardinia-Piedmont region was ruled by the Princely House of Italy.
- The northern region was controlled by the Austrian-Habsburg dynasty, the central region was governed by France’s Popes, and the southern region by Spain’s Bourbon kings.
- With the secret societies founded by Mazzini, such as Young Italy and Young Europe, the unification of Italy began.
- With his full tack of diplomacy with France, Count Cavour overcame the Austrians and liberated northern Italy.
- Garibaldi defeated the Bourbon kings of Spain with his armed volunteers called red shirts, liberating the kingdom of two Sicilies.
- The second victory of Emmanuel overcame the popes of France and liberated the southern area and completed the unification of Italy, and the Emperor of unified Italy was proclaimed.