Neurons are the fundamental unit of the nervous system specialized to transmit information to different parts of the body.
Functions of a neuron
1.Neurons are specialized cells of the nervous system that transmit signals throughout the body. Neurons have long extensions that extend out from the cell body called dendrites and axons<br>
2.Dendrites are extensions of neuron’s cell body or soma that receive signals and conduct them toward the cell body<br>
3.The cell body extends into an axon which is covered by myelin sheath<br>
4.The myelin sheath acts as an insulator which prevents short-circuiting in the neurons. This way an impulse is maintained within a single neuron and doesn’t go haywire<br>
5.There are small gaps in the myelin sheath known as Nodes. An impulse jumps from node to node on its way of propagation towards the axon terminals<br>
6.At the terminals, depending on the makeup of the neuron, the impulse is transmitted to the dendrites of the next neuron via a junction known as synapse, in a chemical or electric manner<br>
Diagram of neuron with labels
Here is the description of human neuron along with the diagram of the neuron and their parts.
The neuron is a specialized and individual cell, which is also known as the nerve cell. A group of neurons forms a nerve.
Dendrites–A branch-like structure that functions by receiving messages from other neurons and allow the transmission of messages to the cell body
Cell Body–Each neuron has a cell body with a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and other components
Axon–Axon is a tube-like structure that functions by carrying an electrical impulse from the cell body to the axon terminals for passing the impulse to another neuron
Synapse– This structure functions by permitting the entry of a neuron to move an electrical or chemical signal from one neuron to another neuron