Nephrons are the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney. Nephrons are composed of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule. The renal corpuscle consists of a tuft of capillaries called a glomerulus and an encompassing Bowman’s capsule.
Structure of a Nephrons:
- Nephrons are the basic filtering units of kidneys.
- Each kidney possesses large number of nephrons, approximately 1-1.5 million.
- The main components of the nephron are glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, and a long renal tubule.
Structure of Nephron – Easy Diagram
This easy and simple depiction of Nephron shows the important structures of nephron – such as the proximal convoluted tubule, Bowman’s capsule, Descending Limb of Loop of Henle, Loop of Henle, Distal convoluted tubule, Collecting duct and Ascending Limb of Loop of Henle.
Functioning of a Nephron:
- The blood enters the kidney through the renal artery, which branches into many capillaries associated with glomerulus.
- The water and solute are transferred to the nephron at Bowman’s capsule.
- In the proximal tubule, some substances such as amino acids, glucose, and salts are selectively reabsorbed and unwanted molecules are added in the urine.
- The filtrate then moves down into the loop of Henle, where more water is absorbed.
- From here, the filtrate moves upwards into the distal tubule and finally to the collecting duct. Collecting duct collects urine from many nephrons.
- The urine formed in each kidney enters a long tube called ureter. From ureter, it gets transported to the urinary bladder and then into the urethra.