Describe the Structure and Functioning of Nephrons

Nephrons are the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney. Nephrons are composed of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule. The renal corpuscle consists of a tuft of capillaries called a glomerulus and an encompassing Bowman’s capsule.

Structure of a Nephrons:

  • Nephrons are the basic filtering units of kidneys.
  • Each kidney possesses large number of nephrons, approximately 1-1.5 million.
  • The main components of the nephron are glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, and a long renal tubule.

Functioning of a Nephron:

  • The blood enters the kidney through the renal artery, which branches into many capillaries associated with glomerulus.
  • The water and solute are transferred to the nephron at Bowman’s capsule.
  • In the proximal tubule, some substances such as amino acids, glucose, and salts are selectively reabsorbed and unwanted molecules are added in the urine.
  • The filtrate then moves down into the loop of Henle, where more water is absorbed.
  • From here, the filtrate moves upwards into the distal tubule and finally to the collecting duct. Collecting duct collects urine from many nephrons.
  • The urine formed in each kidney enters a long tube called ureter. From ureter, it gets transported to the urinary bladder and then into the urethra.

4 Comments

  1. Nice very nice

  2. G S Mahima Jasmine

    It’s really very helpful and a good guide.

  3. Thanks for this easy answer

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