Nephrons are the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney. Nephrons are composed of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule. The renal corpuscle consists of a tuft of capillaries called a glomerulus and an encompassing Bowman’s capsule.
Structure of a Nephrons:
- Nephrons are the basic filtering units of kidneys.
- Each kidney possesses large number of nephrons, approximately 1-1.5 million.
- The main components of the nephron are glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, and a long renal tubule.
Functioning of a Nephron:
- The blood enters the kidney through the renal artery, which branches into many capillaries associated with glomerulus.
- The water and solute are transferred to the nephron at Bowman’s capsule.
- In the proximal tubule, some substances such as amino acids, glucose, and salts are selectively reabsorbed and unwanted molecules are added in the urine.
- The filtrate then moves down into the loop of Henle, where more water is absorbed.
- From here, the filtrate moves upwards into the distal tubule and finally to the collecting duct. Collecting duct collects urine from many nephrons.
- The urine formed in each kidney enters a long tube called ureter. From ureter, it gets transported to the urinary bladder and then into the urethra.