Describe the working of paramagnetism

We know that Magnetization is the rate at. which a substance gets magnetized and Magnetic susceptibility is the how much. magnetization of a material takes place with respect to an applied magnetic field Let us consider some Ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic material at a nano scale if it has Zero magnetization when no magnetic field is applied below curie temperature we could call it as Paramagnetic substance. However same materials show High Magnetic susceptibilities at nano scale. Therefore these materials may also be called as Ferromagnetic materials There lies a question what properties these materials are having either Paramagnetic or Ferromagnetic? This Paramagnetic behavior is observed only at nano scale. However due to their small size magnetic moment will be comparable to thermal energy. Hence they will be having high magnetic susceptibility than paramagnetic materials . In certain materials, every atom or molecule possesses a net stable magnetic moment-due to orbital also spin magnetic moments still in the nonappearance of an external magnetic field. Magnetic moments are randomly leaning in the nonappearance of an external magnetic field. These creates the net magnetic moment zero, therefore the magnetization of the material is zero. External magnetic field is applied to the magnetic dipoles be inclined to align themselves in the direction of the magnetic field with the material become magnetized. Although the paramagnetic material doesn’t have the characteristics of the ferromagnetic material however they do have permanent dipole moments. Due to the thermal random motion the magnetic dipole moment doesn’t line up perfectly with the applied magnetic field. The susceptibility of paramagnetic material is of the order of. 10-5 to 10-3. due to the absence of the strong magnetic effect as found in the ferromagnetic materials The paramagnetic material becomes a good magnetic material when it is placed in the strong magnetic material. It starts acting as a magnet and attracts and repels other magnetic and ferromagnetic materials. As soon as the applied magnetic field is removed, the net magnetic alignment of the magnetic dipoles is lost and the dipoles return to their normal random motion. This consequence is recognized as. Paramagnetism. In this section the parameters related to. Paramagnetism is being discussed . .

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