Describe with suitable diagram the Deacon process of manufacture of chlorine. Write its reaction with ammonia.


Deacon’s method The method Cl2 is obtained by oxidizing HCl gas with oxygen in the presence of a catalyst. CuCl2 acts as a catalyst in this process at 723k.

Properties of Cl2

  • Cl2 is a gas with greenish-yellow colouration and pungent odour.
  • The nature of the gas is poisonous.
  • The gas boils at 239.11K and melts at 171.6K.
  • Chlorine water is formed when Cl2 is dissolved in water. The yellow colour of the water gets dissipated when exposed to the sunlight due to the formation of hypochlorous acid and HCl. This hypochlorous acid formed is unstable hence it decomposes to give nascent oxygen which is responsible for the bleaching and oxidizing action of Cl2.

Cl2+→H2O + sunlight → HCl+ HOCl

2HOCl+2HCl → 2[O]

The reaction of chlorine with ammonia:

1. An excess of ammonia:

3Cl2 + 8NH3 → 6NH4Cl + N2

2. Excess of chlorine

3Cl2 + NH3 → NCl3 + 3HCl

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