Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.

  • As the Agriculture sector provided livelihood for more than 60 per cent of India’s population, there was a need for serious institutional and technical reforms. 
  • Thus after independence, priority was given to bring about institutional reforms in the country through various measures such as abolition of zamindari, consolidation of holdings, cooperation, collectivisation, etc. 
  • The main focus of our First Five Year Plan was ‘Land Reforms.’ 
  • Consolidation of holdings was necessary as there was fragmentation of land holdings which was caused by the right of inheritance.
  • Providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest, banks, cooperative societies, and Grameen banks were established.
  • Provisions were made to provide crop insurance against diseases affecting the crops, fires, cyclones, floods, droughts.
  • The Government of India introduced different schemes for the benefit of the farmers: Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS), Kissan Credit Card (KCC).
  • On the television and radio, special agricultural programmes and weather bulletins were introduced for the benefit of farmers.
  • The White Revolution (Operation Flood), the Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and were some of the strategies initiated to improve the lot of Indian agriculture. 
  • However, development was concentrated in a few selected areas, despite Government of India efforts to introduce reforms in the agriculture sector, in the 1960s and 1970s.
  • Therefore, in the 1980s and 1990s, including both technical and institutional reforms, there was initiation of a comprehensive programme for land development.
  • To check the exploitation of farmers by middlemen, and speculators, the government even announced the procurement prices, remunerative, minimum support price for important crops.

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