Explain Green Revolution and state its impact on crop production in India.


Need for Green Revolution in India

Around 75% of India’s population was dependent on agriculture when India attained its independence from British rule. Majority of the farmers at that time did not have access to adequate infrastructure and they used old technology. This resulted in very poor productivity. Indian agriculture was mainly dependent on the Monsoon. The Indian farmers suffered if the monsoon failed as majority of the farmers in India at that point of time did not have access to irrigation facilities. The Indian agriculture sector had stagnated during colonial rule.

Green Revolution in India 

The above mentioned problems were permanently fixed with the help of the Green Revolution. Green revolution means an increase in the production of food grains by using High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds. HYV seeds of wheat and rice were used during the Green revolution. The use of these seeds required a regular supply of water, and using pesticides and fertilizers in the right quantities. During the first phase of Green revolution, i.e. from the mid 1960s to the mid 1970s, the HYV seeds were used in the states of Punjab, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh. It predominantly benefitted the wheat growing regions. The Green revolution spread to more varieties of crops and a larger number of states during the second phase of the Green Revolution i.e. from mid 1970s to mid 1980s.

Green Revolution in India – Impact on Crop Production in India

  • Due to adequate crop production due to the Green revolution, India has avoided famines even when the weather conditions were not favorable and adverse.
  • The increase in food production was disproportionate in different states.
  • As the crop production in India increased, it helped the Government to carefully design a food security system in India at the country level.

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