When an amide is treated with bromine in an aqueous or ethanolic solution of sodium hydroxide, degradation of amide leads to primary amine formation. This reaction involving the degradation of amide and is popularly known as the Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction. The primary amine thus formed contains one carbon less than the number of carbon atoms in that amide. This is accomplished by heating the primary amide with a mixture of a halogen (chlorine or bromine), a strong base, and water. The general equation for this reaction can be illustrated as follows.