Soil erosion and deforestation are the main threats to the soil. Human and natural factors can both lead to soil degradation. Some soil conservation methods are described below.
A layer of organic matter like straw covers the bare ground between plants and helps to maintain soil moisture.
To create barriers along contours, stones, grass, soil are being used. Trenches are made to collect water in front of the barriers.
Rocks are stacked up to slow down water flow and also help to stop gullies and further erosion of soil.
On the steep slopes, wide flat steps or terraces are designed so that flat surfaces are usable for cultivation, thus minimizing surface run-off and soil erosion.
Various crops can be grown in alternating rows and are planted at varying times to protect the soil from rain washing.
Ploughing of contours
Ploughing parallel to the contours of a hill slope to create a natural obstacle for fluid to drain down the slope.
In the coastal and dry areas, rows of trees are cultivated to track the passage of air and preserve the cover of the soil.