Explain Ostwald's dilution law.


Ostwald’s dilution law describes the dissociation constant of the weak electrolyte with the degree of dissociation (α) and the concentration of the weak electrolyte.

A binary electrolyte AB which dissociates into A+and B ions.

AB ⇌ A+ + B

(i) For very weak electrolytes, since α <<< 1, (1 – α) = 1

∴ \(K = C\alpha ^{2}\) \(\alpha = \sqrt\frac{K}{C}\)

(ii) Concentration of any ion = √K/V

K =dissociation constant of a weak acid

α = degree of dissociation.

Ostwald’s dilution law states that only at infinite dilution the weak electrolyte undergoes complete ionization.

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