Preparation of the soil is the first step before the growing of the crop. It helps to turn the soil and loosen it to allow the roots to penetrate deep into it. The loosening of the soil helps in the growth of several soil microbes, earthworms, etc., which enrich the soil with humus and other essential nutrients. The process of turning and loosening is called ploughing. This is done using a plough, hoe, and cultivators.