Explain the functions of a neuron

Neuron Functions:

Neurons are specialized cells of the nervous system that transmit signals throughout the body. Neurons have long extensions that extend out from the cell body called dendrites and axons. Dendrites are extensions of neuron’s cell body or soma that receive signals and conduct them toward the cell body. The cell body extends into axon which is covered by myelin sheath. The myelin sheath acts as an insulator which prevents short circuiting in the neurons. This way an impulse is maintained within a single neuron and doesn’t go haywire. There are small gaps in the myelin sheath known as Nodes of Ranvier. An impulse jumps from node to node on its way of propagation towards the axon terminals. At the terminals, depending on the makeup of the neuron, the impulse is transmitted to the dendrites of the next neuron via a junction known as synapse, in a chemical or electric manner.

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