Reproduction is the process by which new individuals are produced by the parents. The process of reproduction ensures that a plant or animal species does not disappear from Earth. This process is very important in maintaining stability in the ecosystem and for the continuation of life on earth. Had there been no reproduction, all the species would have become extinct.
Importance of Reproduction
- Reproduction maintains a balance between the birth rate and death rate.
- The new individuals replace the old and the dying population.
- It also helps in increasing the number of species in the ecosystem.
- The genes are transmitted from the parents to the offspring.
- This leads to the evolution of species.
- Variations in species and their ability to survive in different environments is the result of reproduction.
Types of Reproduction
Reproduction is of two types:
- Sexual reproduction: Two parents are involved
- Asexual reproduction: Single parent is involved
The difference between sexual and asexual reproduction is tabulated below
|Asexual reproduction||Sexual reproduction|
|The type of reproduction in which only a single parent is involved is called asexual reproduction.||The type of reproduction which involves two parents to give rise to an offspring is called sexual reproduction.|
|There is no mixing of genetic information.||The genetic information from both parents is inherited.|
|Example: Budding in hydra||Example: Human beings|
Sexual reproduction is more effective than asexual reproduction. This is because sexual reproduction involves the fusion of male and female gametes. Therefore, there are more chances of variations among the offsprings. Whereas in asexual reproduction, only a single parent is involved. Hence, there are no genetic variations among the offsprings and they are the exact clones of the parents.
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