Explain the principle of an electric generator and the function of brushes


An electric generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction phenomenon. According to it, whenever a coil is rotated between a magnet’s poles, an induced current is set up in the coil, whose direction is given by Fleming’s right-hand rule.

Working of electric generator

Electric generators work on the principle of electromagnetic induction. A conductor coil (a copper coil tightly wound onto a metal core) is rotated rapidly between the poles of a horseshoe type magnet. The conductor coil along with its core is known as an armature. The armature is connected to a shaft of a mechanical energy source such as a motor and rotated. The mechanical energy required can be provided by engines operating on fuels such as diesel, petrol, natural gas, etc. or via renewable energy sources. When the coil rotates, it cuts the magnetic field which lies between the two poles of the magnet. The magnetic field will interfere with the electrons in the conductor to induce a flow of electric current inside it.

Working principle of generator

The function of Brushes

Brushes are kept pressed on to two slip rings separately. Outer ends of brushes are connected to the galvanometer. Thus, brushes help in transferring current from the coil to the external circuit.

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